From: [email protected]
Newsgroups: alt.sewing, rec.crafts.textiles.sewing,, 
Subject: Historical Costuming FAQ
Date: 27 Mar 1998 13:03:09 -0800
Reply-To: [email protected]
Summary: Lists of sources for patterns and supplies for historical costuming.
	Bibliography of relevant books.  Info relevant to SCA periods (600 AD
	to 1600 AD) and Civil War.  Some pointers to Historical Reenactment
Keywords: FAQ, historical costuming, sewing, textiles, books, patterns, sources
Posting-Frequency: 6 weeks

Archive-name: crafts/historical-costuming
Last-modified: 15 Dec 1997

The following is the second of three lists of Frequently Asked Questions for
the alt.sewing and rec.crafts.textiles.* groups.  I plan to use the same FAQs
for all newsgroups as long as most of the questions remain pertinent to both

Like most of us, I don't know all the answers, I've just collected the wisdom
of the net.  Many of these answers have been culled for postings over the last
year or so.  Many regular posters have contributed to this list through their
postings and e-mail.  Any additions or comments are appreciated and can be
mailed to me.  

 [email protected]   (Lara Fabans)  

(c) All the material in these faqs are copyrighted by the owner
of the FAQs (which may change).  Free use is encouraged. These
FAQs are not to be reused for profit.  This copyright must be
kept with the FAQ used in it's entirety.  
The first list concentrates on general sewing questions and supply information
and restoring antique sewing machines.  The second list concentrates on
costuming and historical clothing.  The third posting contains a list of books
that cover sewing, fitting and pattern drafting.

Some of these answers are fairly lengthy so I have used "ctrl-L" between the
different questions in this FAQ.  Note: within the "rn" news reader you can 
      g 1) 
at the "More --##%--" prompt to go directly to question 1). 

Questions addressed: 

1) Where is a good source of costuming information?
2) Are there any sources of historical costuming patterns and supplies?
2a) Medieval Miscellanea
3) What about period fabrics?
4) What about Civil War era stuff?
5) How about information on Seminole War re-enactments and frontier costuming?
6) Tips for making authentic historic costumes from modern supplies.
7) Administrative Note: historical authenticity, reproducing patterns and SCA
8) Acknowledgments
9) Where can I get an up to date copy of this FAQ?


1) Where is a good source of costuming information?

A good source for costuming information is the SCA, Society of Creative
Anachronism.  The avowed purpose of the SCA is the study and recreation
of the European Middle Ages, its crafts, sciences, arts, traditions,
literature, etc. The SCA "period" is defined to be 600 AD to 1600 AD,
concentrating on the Western European High Middle Ages.  Some members
extend the period from 450 AD to about 1650 AD.  More or less officially
the purpose of the SCA is "The study and re-creation of the Middle Ages
and Renaissance, not as they were, but as they should have been".

Most members of the SCA make and wear period costumes.  Furthermore,
most Kingdoms have active costumers guilds.  The SCA also host collegia
(classes) on all aspects of the historical period, including costume.

You can find SCA members in the newsgroup  If you post
there, be sure to mention your city and state so that those who respond
can suggest local SCA groups and sources. If you wish to contact the SCA
national headquarters you can write to:

The Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.          
Office of the Registry
P.O. Box 360789
Milpitas, CA 95036-0789

Publications of the Society from the national office include "The Knowne Worlde Handboke" and "The Complete Anachronist". The Handboke is a general information book about all aspects of the Society's activities. It has a few sections on costume, and has some patterns drawn on a graph paper grid that can be blown up. The Anachronist is a bi-monthly series of pamphlets on a single subject each. The national newsletter, Tournaments Illuminated, has occasional articles on specific aspects of costume. Note: The third edition of The Knowne Worlde Handboke is available as of January 1993 for $12. Membership in the SCA includes a subscription to Tournaments Illuminated. There are two regular SCA postings, one posted by Wilson Heydt ([email protected]) and the other written by Arval Benicoeur ([email protected] or [email protected]) and Siobhan Medhbh O'Roarke ([email protected]). Another excellent source is the National Costumers Guild. Their address is: P.O. Bog 94538 Pasadena, Ca. 91109. They sponser shows all year long, and also run "Costume College" which teaches classes on all aspects of costuming from all periods. They have a panel of specialists which offer free assistance to members needing assistance with a project. Historic Costume Maillist: Contact: [email protected] Send an email to the above contact with subscribe h-costume your-first-name your-last-name in the body of the message. Purpose: This list concentrates on recreating period clothing, from the Bronze age to the mid-20th Century. Its emphasis is on accurate historical reproduction of clothing, historical techniques for garment construction, and the application of those techniques in modern clothing design. Other topics appropriate for discussion include adapting historical clothing for the modern figure, clothing evolution, theatrical costumes, patterns, materials, books, and sources for supplies. Vintage Clothing And Costume Jewelry Maillist: Contact: [email protected] Purpose: The purpose of this list is to discuss existing vintage clothing and vintage costume jewelry, of all eras. "Existing" is the key word here, and conversations concentrate on how to find such clothing and jewelry, where to buy it, how to judge its quality, how much to pay for it, how to wear it, etc. Some restoration topics, such as how to use parts of damaged goods in other garments or jewelry settings are suitable topics, too. Announcements for estate sales, advertisements for sale or wanted, and pointers to shops are all welcome on this list. Subscribing to vintage: Mail [email protected] with the following message in the body: info vintage and then follow the directions Vintage page on the WWW: Unknown: Please email me if you know where it moved to. Fantasy Costume Maillist: Contact: [email protected] Purpose: This list concentrates on the creation of fantasy costume of all eras: past, present and future. The imagination is your only limitation. Discussions concentrate on design, motivation and execution of fantasy clothing, costume, or wearable art. Suitable topics include techniques of abstraction, theatrical costumes, serious Halloween and Mardi Gras costumes, mythological and other non-factual historic-type costumes, incorporating mixed media, creative and motivational forces, using and finding patterns, materials, books, and other sources for supplies. French and Indian War Enactment: Contact Bryan John Maloney ([email protected]) for more information, including info on: Forces of Montcalm and Wolfe Fraser's 78th Highland Scottish Regiment of Foot Gage's Light Infantry The second and third groups are units within the Forces of Montcalm and Wolfe. M&W is dedicated to recreating the 1740-1760 period in North America for educational and entertainment purposes (educate the public, entertain ourselves). It includes groups that portray military units of the French, English, and Spanish armies of the period in North America, groups that portray the Amerinds, groups that portray many aspects of civilian society in North America 1740-1760CE. Other groups that may be of interest include: National Civil War Association (NCWA) taped message (+1 408 927 7651) Greater Bay Area Costumers Guild ("Dreamers of Decadence") 5214-F Diamond Heights, Suite 320 San Francisco, CA 94131 415/974-9333 (VoiceMail) Membership: $20/year (includes ICG membership) Subscription to monthly newsletter: $10/year Friends of the English Regency Newsletter "Haut Ton" $8/year, contact Elayne Pelz 15931 Kalisher Street, Granada Hills, CA 91344-3951 (818) 366-3827 NOTE: Haut Ton is no longer being published due to lack of interest. Update: From 10/30/96: Re: Friends of the English Regency, this mostly So. Calif entity which has generally eschewed organization exists in that it puts on monthly dances (actually about 9 or 10 a year) an Autumn Ball and an Assembly in the spring. Those wishing more information may contact Sue Haseltine [email protected] FIRES, the Florida Indian Re-Enactment Society. c/o Chris Kimball (Okahumpkee) [email protected] Seminole War re-enactments. $/year Send email to get info. California Independent Renaissance Guilds Association (CIRGA ) (Can anyone provide pointers to other historical recreation groups?) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Books: There are also a couple of books that you might find interesting. _Sewing and Collecting Vintage Fashions_ by Eileen MacIntosh: This should be available or orderable from your local sewing shop or bookstore. A good look at many aspects of vintage clothing. Includes sections for sewers and timid sewers. Tries to cover both "you want a certain look, what era might it be" and "you want a certain era, what styles were in vogue". Also has a good chapter on "How accurate does this have to be?" There is also a good section in the back listing various resources, Groups, and references coded by period and what they supply. _The American Historical Supply Catalogue: A Nineteenth-Century Sourcebook_ By Alan Wellikoff: I found this in a used bookstore, but it should still be in print. This covers a wide range of items. Not much on patterns, but if you are looking for items to round out a costume, it may be helpful. Norris, Herbert. _Church vestments: their origin & development._ New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. Inc., 1950. This discusses vestments from the early church through the 15th c. It describes the materials and colors likely to have been used with each style, and often gives simple diagrams of the garments laid flat, indicating angles where appropriate and sometimes measurements. A bit of attention is given to trim, embroidery, hats, shoes, and other such stuff. There seem to be plenty of libraries out there with copies of this book, so most folks should be able to get it through interlibrary loan if they badger their local librarian long enough! (thanks to Tiffany Severns!) Note: These volumes are highly recommended by the NetReaders. Another recommended series is _Costume and Fashion_. v. 1 is Classical to Byzantine; v.2 is fall of Rome to 1485; v.3 is Tudors & Elizabethan, v.4 may be Stuart & Jacobean; then he skipped to Georgian or something. I don't think he completed the series before his death. He was a Victorian stage costumer, writing after he retired. (Any more information on these??) And here's a newcomer: _Period Patterns_ by Doris Edson with text by Lucy Barton published 1942. The author (Ms. Edson) has taken costumes on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and, I believe, a few other museums, and broken them down into chart/pattern format on grids "for the serious student of costume." It contains photos of actual garments and some created from cotton to represent what garments no longer exist. Garments date from 1500's to early 1900's. This book claims to be a supplement to "Historic Costume for the Stage" which I have as yet been unable to find. ------------------------------------------------------------ Costuming Periodicals There is a new quarterly journal specializing in reviews of books on historic costume, clothing, wearable art, textiles, etc. Rags R. L. Shep Box 668 Mendocino, CA 95460 USA Subscriptions will start in January, but a preliminary issue is scheduled for October. For one year, the cost is $14 for US subscriptions, $15 for Canadian, 12 pounds 75 pence for the UK, and $20 US for anywhere else in the world. ----------------------------------------------------------------- Costuming Web Sites California Ren Faire's home page on the Web: Medieval/Renaissance Wedding Page The Costume Site Costume Shop Costume Page Jessamyn's Regency Costume Companion Museum Replicas (you can request a catelog by emailing [email protected]) A Theatrical Combat Group Evermore Clothiers Has a nice photo gallery for renaissance and fantasy clothing. Ukraine Costumes 2) Are there any sources of historical costuming patterns and supplies? A quick comment on patterns sent to me by someone who is a professional: Old patterns such as those sold by Campbells, Past Patterns, Folkware, Old World Ent, Buckarroo Bobbins, etc. are rarely patterns which can be cut out and sewed, ending up with something that comes even close to fitting. You had better be prepared to do much pattern work on them first. They were made to fit peoples bodies in another era, and don't really work with modern bodies. Day after day I have people call me asking why when they bought an old pattern and cut and sewed it very carefully it didn't fit at all! A Victorian Era pattern in size 9 would be lucky to fit a 5 or 6 today. None of these pattern companies to my knowledge update their patterns, they just sell copies of old brown paper patterns. You are almost better making up a new pattern than trying to make one of those old patterns work. (thank you so much to the author from the faq maintainer) Update: The faq maintainer (me) got a great rebuttal to this which I'll cut & paste in: There are definitely some patterns, and indeed whole pattern lines, that are probably only useful as obscure torture devices of the innocent. But I have had good results with patterns from Past Patterns, a company which examines genuine vintage garments and draws up patterns from them in modern-day sizes. And please be sure to check out the Greater Bay Area Costumers Guild's "Great Pattern Review," which gives the lowdown on every pattern any of their members have ever tried. I discovered it recently and had a great time reading through it--not to mention was glad I hadn't yet ordered a pattern from a company they thoroughly despise. It is important to keep in mind, too, that one MUST wear period undergarments (particularly corsets) to achieve most post-medieval period looks and for the clothing to fit right. If one expects historical patterns to fit a panty-and-bra'd body, one is doomed to frustration, and if one redrafts them, they may fit, but the end result still won't look like those old photos/fashion plates/portraits. Check out (thank you again so much to the author from me) Patterns and Supplies: Amazon Vinegar & Pickling Works 2218 E. 11th St. Davenport, IA 52803-3760 (319) 322-6800 (800) 798-7979 - orders ONLY and only from the US (319) 322-4003 - fax - a) general catalog ($5/each?) b) historical patterns catalog ($7/each) c) shoes and footwear catalog ($3/each). This is "the mailing list to be on". Historical patterns selected from Folkwear, Period Patterns, early western, victorian, hoop-gown era, Past Patterns, Attic Copies (1920's to 40's), Prairie Clothing, Amish, kilts, ethnic and dance. AlterYears formerly Raiments 3749 E. Colorado Blvd Pasadena, CA 91107 phone: (818) 585-2994 fax: (818) 432-4530 (24 hrs) E-mail, c/o Anderson: [email protected] Store Hours: Tues, Wed, Fri: 10:00 AM to 5:30 PM Thurs: 10:00 AM to 7:30 PM Sat: 11:00 AM to ;4:00 PM Their 1996 catalog is almost 200 pages containing 1400 patterns, over 1000 book titles, and all the hard to find supplies: corset bones, grommets, hoop skirts, cloak clasps, feather fans, gloves, snoods and more. The cost is $5.00 for 4th class book rate delivery or $8.00 for priority mail delivery. Visa/MC/AMEX/Disc accepted. Atira's Fashions 3935 S. 113th St. Seattle, WA 98168 - catalog $4. Authentic Middle Eastern costume patterns for bellydancers, folk dancers and musicians. More than 32 designs for men and women. Body Hangings 835 Decatur St. New Orleans, La 70116 504-524-9856 1719 East Main Nacagdoches, Tx 75961 409-564-1621 111 East Main Branson, Mo 65616 417-337-5517 - Cloaks. For a couple hundred bucks, you can get pretty much anything you want in leather, velvet, velveteen and wool. Campbell's Designs Box 400 Gratz, PA 17030-0400 713-425-2045 - $3.00 catalog. ($4.50 in spring 1991?) Patterns from 1776-1945 Carolina Stitches in Time Box 10933 Winston-Salem, N.C. 27108 (919) 764-0790 - Period clothing patterns. Cinderella's Closet 287 Thayer Street Providence, RI 02906 1-800-566-8511 - Nice selection of capes in variety of colors. Carry other Victorian garments. Chivalry Sports PO Box 18904 Tucson, AZ 85731-8904 Inquires (602) 722-1255 Orders 1-800-730-KING - They sell merchandise primarily aimed at people in the SCA, incl: Folkwear Patterns, Embroidery Design Books ( a wide price range ), Ready made clothing (small assortment). Costume Connection PO Box 4518 Falls Church, VA 22044 phone (703)237-1373 fax (703)237-1374 - This company purchased the rights to the Period Patterns that were produced by Medieaval Miscellanea. The Costume Connection, Inc. is also producing an ever-growing line of their own patterns. They also sell jewelry, books, etc. Both wholesalers and retailers are welcome to contact. Enhancements Costume Supply P.O. Box 8604 Anaheim, CA 92812-0604 (714) 638-4545 (fax) - The catalog is $ 2.00. They carry millinery supplies, finished hats, buckram frames, underpinnings, (hoops, panniers, bustles) corset supplies, books, other misc. costume supplies, archival supplies and wigs all geared toward historical costuming. Fall Creek Suttlery P.O. Box 530 Freedom, CA 95019 (408) 728-1888 - $2.00 catalog. Civil War era items and patterns. Folkwear The Taunton Press 63 South Main St, Box 5506 Newtown, CT 06470-5506 - Only some of the original patterns have been reprinted, but Taunton is reprinting others regularly. Mostly Victorian and Early American patterns. (see sewing FAQ for list of suppliers who have some older patterns) NOTE: They are discontinuing a lot of the 'Ren faire' style patterns (e.g. if you can find a Kinsale Cloak pattern, nab it. They are no longer being produced). Evermore Clothiers P.O. Box 187 Merrimack, N.H. 03054-0187 617-629-5885 - Renaissance and fantasy clothing (men and women). Also a nice section for leather wear. They currently charge $3 for our catalog, to cover production and postage. But, they'll send you a coupon for $3 off your first purchase. Their web site also has a nice photo gallery. G-Street Fabrics 11854 Rockville Pike Rockville, Md 20852 (301) 231-8998 Hanson's Leather 6900 Andressen Road Sheridan, CA 95681 1-800-750-COWS (2697) 9am - 5pm M-Sat f you would like a copy of our Catalog the cost is $ 3.00 for U.S. customers and $ 4.00 for Foreign customers in U.S. funds only. Lots and lots of leather. They have an online catalog with lots of good pictures as well as a calendar of events where they'll be showing. Hedgehog Handworks P.O. Box 45384 Los Angeles, CA 90045 1-310-670-6040 -$5/catalog refundable on the first $30 purchase. They sell books on historical costuming and needlework, historic-looking notions such as chatelaine pins and fancy metal clasps, and some fancy needlework tools. Their needlework supplies include fantasy embroidery charts, glass beads and specialty threads including real gold and silver bullions. Historic Patterns 5150 Mae Anne Ave 213-118 Reno NV 89523 - Victorian gown patterns and wedding accessories. From an advertisement in Threads magazine. JAS Townsend & Son P.O. Box 415 Pierceton, IN 46562 (800) 338-1665 - Hats, cloaks, clasps. Large amount of Colonial clothing. Also patterns, authentic cloth. A sutlery that provides mostly American Revolutionary War items and readymades, but has recently started branching out into other eras, most notably American Civil War and even has a pair of Medieval eyeglasses in their current catalog. Check out their forms compatible catalog on the web. L'Victorian Couturier 2161 W. Williams Ave Fallon, NV 89406 - Advertisements in Threads say the catalog is $4.25 (3/93). The ad features Victorian Gown Patterns and wedding accessories. I suspect this place may be oriented mostly towards bridal fashions. Can anyone provide more info on this establishment? [They may be the same as Historic Patterns.] >>WARNING: I have just been informed by someone that they tried to contact this place recently and they couldn't find this place. If anyone has any other information, I'd appreciate it. Lacis 2982 Adeline Street Berkeley, CA 94703 (510) 843-7178 - I went into this delightful place on a vacation day. The store is full of gorgeous laces, antique & new linens, textile creation tools (they had one huge section relating to bobbin lace and one huge section for needle lace), and books books books books. They also had a great stash of Folkwear and Past Patterns. A catalog is $5. La Pelleterie P.O. Box 127 Highway 41 Arrow Rock, Missouri 65320 (816) 837-3261 - $5.00 catalog (as of 1/92). Coats and cloaks, pre 1840. Minnetonka Moccasin Co. is not a historical company, but they do offer a wide choice of styles, including some high boots. Their shoes are advertised in other clothing catalogues, and are nice. NE Shutsa Traders P.O. Box 186 Haven, Kansas 67542 (316) 465-3359 - $1.50 catalog. Cal/Mex era and horsegear. Nicole's Eclectica 668 Bluff Dept OL1 Waynesboro, VA 22980 1-703-943-5646 -$1 refundable on order. Specializing in books and supplies for lacemaking and historic costuming. Fascinating depth of materials including oriental lace arts and techniques. Includes how to make horsehair accessories for the Victorian era. Books include early German tatting pattern books. Old World Enterprises Dept 302 29036 Kepler Ct Cold Spring Minn 56320 - 19th century patterns. $2 for catalog. Their listing says they specialize in 19th century garments. Their patterns aren't copies of existing garments, though, but originals based on the prevailing styles at the time. They offer multiple graded patterns in female sizes 8-10-12-14 and male sizes 38-40-42. Pastiche 3634 NE 19th Portland OR 97212 (mail order only) For Questions: [email protected] - A great description from the owner: My partner and I run a company called "Pastiche" which supplies theatrical and historical costumers since 1975. We carry an eclectic range of things, including fabrics, trims, notions, beads, embroidery supplies, books, sewing baskets, knickknacks, etc. If people are looking for something specific, we can probably find it for them. They don't have a catalog yet, but do have lists which are available for $1.50 and a self-addressed stamped legal-size envelope. And they're working on their web page, so stay tuned. Past Patterns P.O. Box 7587 Grand Rapids, Michigan 49510 (616) 245-9456 - $3.00 catalog. Good selection of early 20th century clothing. Prairie Clothing Co 3732 Tanager Drive NE Cedar Rapids IA 52402 (319) 378-0125 - $1 catalog. Lots of "Little House on the Prairie"-style clothing. More or less current clothing styles adapted for a combination prairie/Edwardian feel without tons of sewing details. The Queen's Thimble 4864 Troth St. Mira Loma, CA 91752-1845 (909)685-4568 e-mail: [email protected] WEB: (It will open 5/31/97) Established in 1993 The Queen's Thimble has grown from a small hobby to a full time job. The woman that owns the shop specialize in costuming from Bronze Age-1900's. She prides herself on historic authenticity. She designs her own patterns and handle almost all aspects of the costume, right down to the shoes. Mostly mail order, mostly custom designs. Free on-line catalog and discussion/advice group for historical garments. R.L.Shep. Box 668 Mendocino, CA 95460. - 1990-91 catalog has 1000 items. $2.50 catalog. Books, magazines and reprints. Books related to the costume and textile arts, including out of print and hard to find books. Shep has also reprinted a number of older clothing books, including a couple of books of patterns for Victorian and Edwardian clothing. Remember When Collection 361 N. Ohio Salina, KS 67401 - Send SASE for brochure. "Romantic" clothing. Current designs adapted to a Victorian feel. Sterling Silks/Sterling Cloth Company 6109 Whipple Ave. NW N. Canton, OH, 44720 Phone: 216-966-2487 - They carry Folkwear, Prairie and Past Patterns, as well as silk fabric of all weights, silk threads (sewing and embroidery), beads, tools (lucets), and dyestuffs. Also some costume accessories and jewelry are sold through their catalog. Shootout Mountain Outfitters Inc. 901 Washington Avenue Santa Monica, California 90403 [email protected] 310-458-0319 Phone 310-394-1846 Fax 310-588-1332 Pager - We are a subsidiary of the H Bar C Company which has been in the family since its origin in 1897. We manufactured all of the clothies for Nudie, Nathan Turk, Joe Taylor, and many of the big designers of the 50s and 60s. We also made all of the garments for Roy Rogers, Tom Mix, Hoppalong Cassidy, Clint Eastwood, and hundreds of other cowboys of the movies from 1920 to the present. Our garments have been in almost every western made over the past 60 years and you will currently see our garments on Dr. Quinn, The Outlaw Years, Chuck Norris, and many other TV shows. We have a 24 page 11x14 catalog which shows a small portion of what we have, and we are also prepared to make anything that someone could dream up in our 58,000 sq. ft. Gardena California facility. Victoriana 2003 Downing Drive Colorado Springs, Colorado 80909 - Catalog is $2. Specialize in Victorian patterns and rich fabrics. Victoriana's Closet 1868 Oakwood Ave. Glendale, CA 91208 - Catalog is $5. They custom make Victorian clothing via mail order from evening gowns to corsets. They feature Heidi Marsh, Harriet Engler, and Godey designs. The fabrics are reproduction prints from 1835-1900. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Dave Uebele ([email protected]) has provided a fairly complete list of sources for 1850-1900 clothing and heavy materials construction. See his notes in Civil War Era Re-enactment. For patterns from the 30's and 40's, check thrift stores and estate sales. A comprehensive textile library may have books dedicated to individual designers. These books tend to be expensive, but the pictures are fantastic. Magazines: ** Vintage Fashions ** Hobby House Press Inc. ** 900 Frederick St. ** Cumberland, M. 21502 ** -- a bi-monthly magazine focusing on vintage apparel and instructions ** for their care and repair. One-year subscription $19.95, sample copy ** $2.95. ** No longer published as of April 1992. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Books: Some of these books are out of print. Most of them should be in a good university library. Some of them will be in the public library: Alcega, Juan de. Tailor's Pattern Book 1589. (reprint) Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 1: Englishwomen's Dresses and Their Construction c. 1660-1860; Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen's Dresses and their Construction c. 1860-1940; New York. Drama Book Publishers, 1972. Also: Patterns of Fashion 3: The cut and construction of clothes for men and women c1560 - 1620; MacMillan London Ltd, 1985, ISBN 0-333-38284-6. Contains notes on construction techniques and fabrics. Very clear drawings show the inside of each garment. Also: Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlocked. Boucher, Francois. 20,000 Years of Fashion : The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. c 1965 by H.N. Abrams, reprinted 1987. (but first published much earlier). Also called Histoire du costume en Occident. 459 pages. Bradfield, Nancy. Costume in Detail: Women's Dress 1730 - 1930. copyright 1968, 1981. George G. Harrap & Co, Ltd, London. Careful examination of 150-200 historical garments, showing general construction details and notes about trim, details, undergarments, supporting frames, etc. Some notes about inner construction and materials. Sketchbook style drawings with short notes. Brooke, Iris. Medieval Theatre Costume: A Practical Guide to the Construction of Garments, New York, Theatre Arts Books, c 1967. Brooke, Iris. English Costume of the Early Middle Ages; The 10th to 13th Centuries, London, A&C Black LTD, 1936. Brooke, Iris. English Costume of the Later Middle Ages; The 14th and 15th Centuries, London, A&C Black LTD, 1935. [Iris Brooke has written others with more of a theatrical bent, but these are the best ones for costumers who want to make *clothing*. However, this FAQ keeper has received a lot of feedback that Brooke's are not historically accurate, are poorly drawn and are often from secondary or tertiary sources. Instead check out books by Yarwood, Nunn and Payne instead.] Burnham, Dorothy. Cut My Cote. Diagrams of actual historical (and ethnic?) clothing in the Royal Ontario Museum. Diagrams are graphed and shown with metric dimensions. Covey, Liz. The Costumer's Handbook. Prentice Hall, 1980. A good basic source for the techniques of theatrical costumers. Dunlevy, Mairead, Dress in Ireland, Publisher B.T.Batsford Ltd London (1989) ISBN 0-7134-5251 x This is a really good reference for Irish historical dress. The author uses a lot of actual examples found in bogs as well as paintings etc to illustrate her discussion. Occasional construction sketches Fernald, Mary. Costume Design and Making. Grimble, Frances. After a Fashion: How to Reproduce, Restore, and Wear Vintage Styles. 8 1/2" X 11" quality paperback. 352 pages . 147 line drawings by Folkwear cover artist Deborah Kuhn. ISBN: 0-9636517-0-6. Publisher: Lavolta Press, 20 Meadowbrook Drive, San Francisco, CA 94132. Published 1993. Price: $35 + sales tax for CA residents + $3.50 shipping. Bibliography, index. About half focuses on reproducing historic styles from medieval through Art Deco. The other half focuses on buying, restoring, and altering vintage clothes from Victorian through Art Deco. Both men's and women's clothes are discussed. The step-by-step instructions are suitable for beginning to advanced sewers. Hansen, Henny Harald, Mongol Costume This is a translation of a Danish text cataloging Mongol costume from several Danish expeditions to Mongolia to study the nomadic tribes. The expeditions were from the turn of the century, the collected costumes were cataloged by Professor Harald Hansen in the early fifties, and the book was recently re-edited and released. Hartley, Dorothy. Medieval Costume & Life; A Review of Their Social Aspects Arranged under Various Classes and Workers with Instructions for Making Numerous Types of Dress, New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1931. Includes workable patterns that make sense within the time period. Hill, Margot Hamilton & Pater A. Buchnell. The Evolution of Fashion: Pattern & Cut from 1066-1930. [Susanna Richardson ([email protected]) states this this book is often incorrect.] Hillhouse, Marion and Evelyn A Mansfield. Dress Design: Draping and Flat Pattern Making. Riverside Press, 1948. Clear instructions on draping, with excellent drawings of bodice, skirt, sleeve, and neckline styles. Perfect for reproducing styles of the 1940's. Holkeboer, Katherine Strand. Patterns for Theatrical Costumes. Edson, Doris & Lucy Barton. Period Patterns. Houston, Mary G. Medieval Costumes in England and France, The 13th, 14th, and 15th Centuries, London, A&C Black, 1965,1939. 8 plates in color, 350 drawings in black & white. Houston, Mary G. & Florence Hornblower. Medieval Costumes in England and France. Hunnisett, Gail. Historical Costuming for Stage. Hunnisett was involved in the costuming for the BBC's production of "Elizabeth R". Hunnisett, Jean. Period Costume for Stage and Screen: Patterns for Women's Dress 1500 - 1800. Hunnisett, Jean. Period Costume for Stage & Screen, Patterns for Women's Dress 1800 - 1909 ISBN 0-88734-609-X published by: Players Press, Inc. P.O. Box 1132, Studio City, CA 91614-0132. It is a very informative book, with a good description on how to create crinolines, and fitting a basic bodice. There are even many pages of various dresses and bodices with scaled diagrams (on graph paper)of each pattern piece. One of the many reviewers on the net looked at the earlier book "Patterns for Women's Dress 1500 - 1800" and there are scaled diagrams in that one as well. Newton, Stella Mary. Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince: A Study of th. Years 1340-1365. WoodBridge: Boydell Press; Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1980. May be out of print. Check your local library. Nunn, Joan. Fashion in Costume, 1200-1980. 1984. bibliography. 256 pages. Good black and white line drawings. Owen-Crocker, Gale R. Dress in Anglo Saxon England, Manchester Univ. Press, 1986. This book covers clothing from 500-1500. There are separate chapters for men's and women's clothing in each of several periods, including very detailed study of 5th-7th century English costume with photos of clothing from archaeological digs. The book is documented principally with archaeological and linguistic/literary evidence; it has good footnotes and bibliography. Payne, Blanche.History of Costume from Ancient Egypt to 20th Century. c.1965. New York. Harper & Row. Includes patterns drawn to scale. Uses primary sources. ISBN: 0823049582 Peacock, John, The Chronicle of Western Costume - From the Ancient World to the late 20th Century. Publisher Thames and Hudson Ltd London (1991) ISBN 0-500-01490-6 John Peacock was senior costume designer for the BBC. This book is great for getting ideas for costumes - it is literally page after page of illustrations and sketches. The only problem is that Mr Peacock is not always careful about showing details (ie seams etc) and the illustrations are basically coloured sketches. I use it mainly for SCA newcomers to look through and decide a period that appeals to them before going on in more detail. Scott, Margaret. The 14th and 15th Centuries. London, Botsford, 1986. Schnurnberger, Lynn Edelmann. Kings, Queens, Knights & Jesters: Making Medieval Costumes. New York: Harper & Row, 1978. Cross-listed under the juvenile section, but was produced in association with the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Might be useful. Sronkova, Olga. Gothic Women's Fashion. Prague, Artia, 1954. [Bohemian costuming] Waugh, Norah. Corsets and Crinolines. Theatre Arts Books, copyright 1970 (and 1954?). 176 pages, illustrated, bibliography. History of the corset, including the different shapes used in different periods (e.g. Tudor, Victorian, Edwardian). One reviewer from the net states this is a wonderful book. The back section contains many corsets and petticoats that are in scale. It even includes the boning lines, as they sometimes don't follow normal seam placement. Waugh, Norah. From an article on sewing costumes in Threads #30: Waugh, Norah: _The Cut of Women's Clothes 1600-1930_ and _The Cut of Men's Clothes 1600-1900_ (Theatre Arts Books) Concise descriptions and drawings of men's garments from 1600 to 1900. Includes scaled patterns that can be enlarged. Yarwood, Dorren. European Costume: 4602+ years of Fashion. 1975. 305 pages. Includes bibliography. Good black and white line drawings. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Additional sources: One tactic for using scaled patterns to construct garments is to choose a garment in a book, make a transparency of the pattern in the book, and go buy a pattern as similar as possible. Then project the transparency on the wall and use it to adjust the bought pattern to the style of the garment in the book. An annotated bibliography of pre-1650 costume sources (including books and periodicals) is available from: Puffs and Slashes c/o L. R. Fox P. O. Box 443 Bloomington, IN 47402-0443 $2.50 per copy Susanna Richardson ([email protected]) is presently (late 1992, early 1993) working on monograph/handbooks for women's clothing, which should be about $6/book. Each one will detail making a particular gown. She has books for Jane Seymour and Beatrice d'Este gowns done, and ready for the printers. She will be providing mail-order for people who do not attend SCA or ECW events. Members of the SCA have written and published other books specifically for costumes within the SCA periods. One useful book is. _Medieval Costume_ by Mistress Katrine de Baillie du Chat. copyright 1988. ISBN 0-943228-01-8. $7.25 (may be an old price). published by: Raymond's Quiet Press PO Box 35118 Albuquerque, NM 87176 This book includes text and line drawings describing some common garments appropriate for SCA. Shows the basic cut of the garments. For some garments the author discusses how to select an appropriate current pattern and modify it for creating a SCA garment. Note: This book may be out of print and unavailable. Second Note: It is the opinion of some that this book may be a duplicate of the first four volumes of Norris's books. It is the opinion of some that the books by Norris are a much better reference. Not having personally read this book, I the faq=keeper cannot comment. Dover has a Pictorial Archive catalog and a Needlework catalog. The Needlework catalog includes several books that discuss Renaissance embroidery. The Pictorial Archive catalog has a FEW books that cover costumes. Typically these are books that contain pictures of people in costume. There are few (none?) books with actual costumes drafted. Dover Publications 31 East 2nd St Mineola, NY 11501 The Whole Costumer's Catalogue c/o Karen Dick, Editor 207 Main Street Beallsville, PA 15313-0207 412/632-3242 Can be ordered for $18/copy, postpaid Be sure to check the list of sources and references in the regular alt.sewing and rec.crafts.textiles.* FAQs. A number are appropriate for costuming. If you are interested in drafting patterns, please be sure to check out some of the books listed in the Textile Books FAQ. Books that are labeled [HIST-COST] may be particularly appropriate for historical costuming. 2a) What happened to Medieval Miscellanea? They were purchased! Costume Connection PO Box 4518 Falls Church, VA 22044 phone (703)237-1373 fax (703)237-1374 - This company purchased the rights to the Period Patterns that were produced byMedieaval Miscellanea. The Costume Connection, Inc. is also producing an ever-growing line of their own patterns. They also sell jewelry, books, etc. Both wholesalers and retailers are welcome to contact. 3) What about period fabrics? Ann Feeney ([email protected]) is maintaining a list of sources for fabrics appropriate for historical costuming. Write to Ann for the most current copy of her list. A slightly condensed version of Ann's list is included below: A number of people recommended various fabric chains. In particular some people mentioned Hancocks (particularly in Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington). Others mentioned their favorite bargain stores that also sell many natural fabrics. The Pendleton Woollen Mills has an outlet in Nebraska City, Nebraska. They carry wools and occasionally have satin, velvet, and lots of modern blouse and dress fabric. The by-the-pound table is mill ends or flawed materials. Pendleton Woolen Mills also has an outlet in Portland, Oregon as well as a factory outlet in Pendleton, Oregon itself. Leather Unlimited 7155 Cty Highway B Box L WBMC Belgium, WI 53004 (414) 994-9464 Mail order only Fishman's Fabric Outlet 620 W. Roosevelt Road Chicago, IL 60607 (312) 922-4170 Silks at about $5/yard Textile Discount Outlet 2126 W. 21st Street Chicago, IL 60608 (312) 847-0572 No recent info, but used to have cottons at good prices Aero Drapery Outlet 122 Messner Drive Wheeling, IL 60090 Minnesota Fabrics outlet Roaring River Mills, in Altoona, PA, is now closed. Horowitz Brothers: New Haven, CT, two blocks from the Coliseum. A moderate to good remnants section that often has reasonably priced tapestry fabrics. Good selection of wools (sales in the spring), excellent trim section, moderate but reasonably priced velvets and a good supply of cottons and linens of various weights. New Haven Leather: Half a block closer to the Coliseum than Horowitz Brothers. Three or four stories of leather piles in a ramshackle old building that you will miss if you are not looking for it. A recessed door and two windows and a faded sign mark the front. THIS is the shoe source! Prepunched soles, heels, threads, dyes and just about everything else you would need for shoes is hidden in here. Leathers are reasonably priced and there is a fantastic selection if they will let you upstairs. Armor grade leather was available last I looked. They keep banker's hours. Affordable Fabrics: CT, Rt 99 just south of the intersection with Rt 91, in or near Enfield. $1.99 a yard for everything in the place. Open 7 days a week. Cottons in broadcloth and heavier weights, selection varies with the season. Wools and blends especially in the spring. Including pure linen, pure wool, and pure silk! And I'm told it's a chain with stores in New Haven and Milford. Millie Mills: CT, Rt 99 just south of the intersection with Rt 91. Diagonally across the street from Affordable Fabrics. Prices are slightly higher, but the selection is a little better for odd fabrics. Zimmans: Lynn MA. An excellent supply of tapestry fabrics, at near-wholesale prices. They have consistently been 20 to 30% lower than the other local stores. Downstairs there is a 4'x12'x1.5' cabinet full of buckles and other items for use on belts. Solid copper and brass, with only a few items that have been plated. These are the leftovers from the 70s and are tarnished, but polish up very well. Perfect for costume or regular usage. Price varies by the clerk 2 for $.25 to 1 for $.50 with the occasional discount for bulk purchases. Fabrics and Findings: Rochester, NY, two locations; the downtown location is rumored to have a larger selection. Huge warehouse of many mill end and/or flawed materials at discount prices. Very large collection of upholstery fabrics upstairs at heavily discounted prices. Patchworks: 126 E. Main, Bozeman, Montana 59715, (406) 587-2112 carries reproduction vintage cotton fabrics. I quote from their Fall, 1993, catalog: "There are currently over 600 bolts in our reproduction department which span all three time periods: Pre-1890's, Turn-of-the-Century, and the Depression Era. These fabrics are ideally suited for antique quilt repairs, reproduction quilt making, or vintage clothing." I'm sorry that I am not able to provide accurate acknowledgements and email addresses for some of these recommendations. 4) What about Civil War era stuff? The following is from Dave Uebele ([email protected]): Contacts from 3rd U.S. Artillery newsletter "The Cannon's Mouth", NCWA. Sorry it's sketchy, but this is what it included that seemed helpful: Abraham Lincoln Book Shop (312) 944-3085 Alabam Trust CSN & Marine 011-44-273-400-508 - UK Re-enactment. The Artillery Shop (601) 323-2606 - Gear Equipment. Artilleryman, The Magazine (617) 646-2010 LL Bean - The best Long Johns! Border States Leatherworks (501) 361-2642 -Saddles, harnesses. Bounty Arts 011-44-8043-3900 - Brass Lanterns. Coonie's Inc. (505) 393-0166 - Black Powder Supplies. Cumberland General Store (800) 334-4640 Chuck & Anita Fulks (408) 728-1888 - Fall Creek Sutlery. C & D Jarnigan (601) 287-4977 - Large Sutlers. Old Suttler John (607) 775-4434 - Sutlers. Past Patterns (616) 245-9456 - Period Patterns (see listing above). Paulson Brothers Ordnance (715) 263-2112 - Ammo, Iron, Cartridges. Prussian Press (614) 654-3630 - Pamphlets and Periodicals. Quartermaster Depot (516) 472-3505 - ACW Boxes and Cr. Quartermaster Shop (313) 987-4127 - Uniforms ACW Regimental Quartermaster (215) 672-6891 - Sights, etc. Steele's Muzzleloading Supply (501) 778-4459 - Powder. Other places for miscellaneous items to round out a historic costume: Black powder/Muzzleloading supplies: These places focus on muzzleloading gun equipment, but do have sections for clothing, tents, personal items, patterns, and miscellaneous camp equipment. Big catalogs, lots of interesting stuff, very useful if you want to do muzzleloading shooting or build/repair guns, but good collection of miscellaneous items to go along with the black powder shooting. Mountain State Muzzleloading Supplies (800) 445-1776 Dixie Gun Works Gunpowder Lane Union City, Tennessee 38261 (800) 238-6785 Here is alternate source to Tandy Leather for leather working supplies. I think their quality is better, and I have been quite impressed with how quickly they process orders. They have a western bias (lots of saddles and cowboy type information). The Leather Factory Fort Worth, Texas Several Nationwide Toll free numbers, By state: Arizona (800) 432-7732 California (800) 999-7371 Colorado (800) 525-8134 Iowa (800) 247-5566 Missouri (800) 888-1993 New Mexico (800) 327-6606 Pennsylvania (800) 233-7155 Tennessee (800) 251-7782 Texas (800) 433-3201 Utah (800) 448-9250 Washington (800) 822-8437 Another source is magazines devoted to different time periods. These come and go too fast to list, but even the most trendy touristy type historical magazine is likely to have ads in the back for different types of historical items. It's worth investigating, and if you find a good resource, pass it back to this list. Also, check with local historical sites or re-enactment groups. They probably have additional (and hopefully local to you) resources. NOTE: Mail to this address bounces. Does anyone have an up to date address for this?? There are several re-enactors on the net. Check the newsgroup soc.history. Also, [email protected] (Alex Cain) is trying to put together a re-enactors mailing list. Should be a good resource if/when it happens. I don't mind answering questions or talking to people about sewing and leather work for 1850 - 1900 costuming, and willing/interested in branching to different time periods and different type of work. I tend to focus on heavy materials construction techniques, but also do men's clothing. -Dave Uebele ([email protected]) 5) How about information on Seminole War re-enactments and frontier costuming? This section contributed by: Michael Brown 4/21/92 I am part of a group in Florida which is involved in re-enactments of Seminole War (1830s) battle. We 'play' the Seminoles. We do research and strive to re-create as accurately as possible the clothing worn by the Seminoles in the 1830s. Recently one of our members put together a book containing instructions on how to create a Seminole Men's costume of this era. Much of this information would be of use to people trying to recreate Creek and other Southeast Indian styles of that period. We also organized into an informal society and publish a pretty good newsletter filled with information on this topic. As for addresses: To order the _Seminole Men Clothing_ book send $12 to: Rick Obermeyer 2124 Miscindy Pl Orlando, FL 32806 Our group is FIRES, the Florida Indian Re-Enactment Society. To join it's $5 which gets you a bimonthly newsletter. To do so, write to: David Mott 2710 Fountain Cir #201 Naples, Fl 33942 There is another source of historical costuming information, particularly American frontier, buckskinners, traders, etc., in a series of books put out by Muzzleloader Magazine. They are titled _The Book of Buckskinning_ and there are about 7 of them. 6) Tips for making authentic historic costumes from modern supplies. One tactic for using scaled patterns to construct garments is to choose a garment in a book, make a transparency of the pattern in the book, and go buy a pattern as similar as possible. Then project the transparency on the wall and use it to adjust the bought pattern to the style of the garment in the book. Tom Apple and several other readers offer the following advice: For those of you who make reproduction historical clothing, I have a few tips for you. I've made clothing ranging in periods from 800 AD to 1865, some of which were for museums and interpretive programs. I've learned a few guidelines that aid in producing high quality, and highly authentic, period garments. 1. Always use natural fiber fabrics or mostly natural fiber blends. 2. Always pre-shrink your fabrics (except silk) prior to using. 3. Never use cotton in pre-18th century clothing, references to cotton in these periods usually denote a type of wool. 4. Often the colors of commercially dyed fabrics are too bright to look like naturally dyed cloth, so additional washing or dyeing may be required to tone down the colors. 5. If using an untried or dubious pattern, make a mockup of the garment using muslin or an old sheet and make adjustments to the fit and cut to suit. Disassemble the mockup and use as your pattern. 6. Machine sew only the construction seams and hand sew all visible stitching, buttonholes, and lacing holes on pre-1850's clothing. On 1850-1880 clothing, hand sew the buttonholes and hand top stitch only on confederate or country type clothing. If the cloth has a coarse weave and is prone to ravelling, machine sew the buttonhole once around then handstitch over top with button and carpet thread of the same color. 7. Also, when selecting fabric, make sure the weave is of a period style. Colors other than black and sometimes blue should have a slightly mottled or speckled look to them. 8. If at all possible, inspect original garments of the period to get a feel for the stitching, construction, and fabric. Hopefully these tips will prove useful. You would be amazed at how observant the public can be on minute details of clothing and uniforms. I've often had people comment on hand stitched buttonholes and the like when doing historic interpretation. Details like these add to your credibility as a historian. Making your clothing right the first time will save you money on progressive upgrades. Regarding suggestion 3), Donna Holsten adds the following: Cotton, although rare, was used in Europe in [medieval/Renaissance] periods. It was usually used in combination with another fiber (wool or linen)--so cotton broadcloth would not be appropriate for use in early garb, but cotton as a fiber would be. It would be used only in very fancy outfits--worn by *very* rich people. I like to parallel its use in medieval/Renaissance Europe with the use of linen in modern America-- it's available, but not widely used and not inexpensive. and Tom added the following additional comments: The main reason I recommended avoiding cotton for pre-18th century clothing is that most cotton available today is not like cotton fabrics available then. I have a book called _Arts of the Anglo-American Community in the Seventeenth Century_, a Winterthur Museum conference report of 1974. In an article on Textile Trade in Boston, 1650-1700, by Linda Baumgarten, it contains a glossary of fabrics. The cotton related fabrics are as follows: Cotton: a woolen fabric with long nap, which gave a soft, fuzzy appearance. Kendal Cottons, Manchester Cottons, and Welsh cottons, named for place of manufacture, were well known woolens. Inventory references to cotton bedsheets mean Indian cotton or a cotton and linen mixture. Other cotton (India) fabrics mentioned are: Calico, Rumal, Vermilion, and Cotton-Linen (linen warp) Generally the cotton I see people use is inappropriate stuff like broadcloth, sport cloth, and cotton corduroy (Cul Duroy). For most clothing linen is much more accurate to use. I concur that cotton was used pre-18th century, but by very few people, and those who did were quite wealthy. I'm sure the cotton then looked a lot like the linen did. NOTE: A dissenting opinion was sent regarding the derivation of corduroy: "Cul Duroy" or "Cul du roi" means, when translated from the French, "The king's backside" 7) Administrative Note: historical authenticity, reproducing patterns and SCA (i.e. disclaimers) People reading this FAQ have many different standards of historical authenticity. Some readers are interested in costumes to use for social events. Others need reasonably accurate historical costumes to use in theater productions. Many readers are members of recreational groups that demand various levels of authenticity. A few readers are scholars doing serious research. Since I do not have the expertise to judge the sources in this FAQ, they cover a wide range of historical authenticity. When knowledgeable readers have commented on the authenticity of a source, I include their comments. Occasionally readers provide conflicting comments which I attempt to reproduce. Serious scholars should use the FAQ only as a general starting guide....... or better yet check with a textile historian at your local college or museum. Similarly, the patterns available from sources in the FAQ require a wide range of textile skills. Many sources require pattern drafting skills. When readers tell me they have had significant problems reproducing garments from a source I try to include their comments in the FAQ. Lara J. Fabans [email protected] 8) Acknowlegements. I used to have a listing of people, but it just got to be too huge. So thank you to everyone who has sent in information. And thanks in advance to all of you who will send in information. 9) Where can I get an up to date copy of this FAQ? There are three textile related FAQs that I maintain. The first concentrates on general sewing questions and supply information and restoring antique sewing machines. The second list concentrates on costuming and historical clothing. The third posting contains a list of books that cover sewing, fitting and pattern drafting. There are other FAQs available. Please post a query to the newsgroup asking about them. Not all are archived on When looking for an FAQ list, first do the obvious and check the relevant newsgroup for articles with "FAQ" in the subject line. If you don't know how to check articles marked as read, your sysadmin can tell you. Next, try the group news.answers since this FAQ is crossposted there. Again, your sysadmin can tell you the commands to use in searching. If you cannot find the FAQ on your system, you can retrieve a copy from Jonathan Kamen's archive of periodic postings. For general instructions on the server, send email containing the commands "help" and "send index" (no quotes, separate lines) to [email protected] For a list of all periodic postings that are archives in news.answers, email the command "send usenet/news.answers/index" to the server. via anonymous FTP: Periodic postings including FAQs are archived at "" in the directory "/pub/usenet". The textile FAQs are: /pub/usenet/news.answers/crafts/textiles/faq/part1 /pub/usenet/news.answers/crafts/textiles/faq/part2 /pub/usenet/news.answers/crafts/historical-costuming /pub/usenet/news.answers/crafts/textiles/books/part1 /pub/usenet/news.answers/crafts/textiles/books/part2 /pub/usenet/news.answers/crafts/textiles/books/part3 via email server: The address of the server is [email protected]. To retrieve files, send email to the server with a blank subject and one or more of these lines in the body: send usenet/news.answers/crafts-textiles/faq/part1 send usenet/news.answers/crafts-textiles/faq/part2 send usenet/news.answers/crafts-historical-costuming send usenet/news.answers/crafts-textiles/books/part1 send usenet/news.answers/crafts-textiles/books/part2 send usenet/news.answers/crafts-textiles/books/part3 via WWW: An html'ized version is located at: -------------------------------------------------------------------- /\ /\ | [email protected] (Lara Fabans) . . |-------------------------------------------------------------- = = |Adobe Systems Publishing Division v | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- - Lara Fabans - Adobe FrameMaker UNIX Platform QA 408-536-6610